The petrochemical industry refers to the processing industry that uses oil and natural gas as raw materials to produce petroleum products and petrochemical products. Petrochemical products are obtained by chemical processing of raw oil provided by the refining process. The first step in the production of petrochemical products is the cracking of raw oil and gas (such as propane, gasoline, diesel, etc.) to produce basic chemical raw materials represented by ethylene, propylene, butadiene, benzene, toluene, and xylene. The second step is to produce more than 200 kinds of organic chemical raw materials and various synthetic materials with basic chemical raw materials.
In addition to the petrochemical industry, petrochemical dependent industries such as chemical fertilizer industry, man-made fiber industry, synthetic resin, and plastic industry, paint industry, cleaning products industry, man-made fiber textile industry, knitting industry, and rubber products industry are also closely related to people's food, clothing, housing, and transportation. About 70% of the hardware parts of precision products, such as parts, shells, tires, and chemicals, come from the petrochemical industry.
The materials involved in petrochemical production are very dangerous, and the probability of fire, explosion, and mass casualties is high. Petrochemical production, from raw materials to products, including semi-finished products, intermediates, various solvents, additives, catalysts, reagents, etc. in the process, most of them are flammable and combustible substances, as well as explosive substances such as crude oil, natural gas, gasoline, liquid hydrocarbon, ethylene, propylene, etc. Most of them exist in the state of gas and liquid and are easy to leak and volatilize.
Many materials are highly toxic and highly toxic, such as benzene, toluene, sodium cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, chlorine, etc. improper disposal or leakage of these materials can easily lead to casualties. In the process of petrochemical production, a variety of strong corrosive acids and alkalis, such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and caustic soda, will be used and produced, so the possibility of equipment and pipeline corrosion problems is high; Some materials also have the characteristics of spontaneous combustion and explosive polymerization, such as metal-organic catalyst, ethylene, etc. Especially in the production process, the process operation conditions are harsh, such as high temperature, cryogenic, high pressure, and vacuum.
Many heating temperatures reach or exceed the spontaneous combustion point of materials. Once the operation is wrong or the equipment is out of repair, fire and explosion accidents will easily occur. In addition, according to the current technological level, in many production processes, materials must be heated by an open fire; In addition, daily equipment maintenance and frequent fire. This constitutes a prominent contradiction, that is, to be afraid of fire, but also to use fire. In addition, the reserves of flammable and explosive substances in various enterprises and devices are very large. Once they are not handled properly, accidents will occur, and the consequences are unimaginable. The accidents in the past have fully proved this point. In addition, in the production and operation environment and construction sites, there are some harmful factors, such as industrial noise, high temperature, dust, radiation, and so on. These toxic and harmful factors will cause acute poisoning accidents, but also with the growth of time, even in the low concentration (dose) conditions, because of its combined effect, it will affect the health of workers, leading to a variety of occupational diseases.
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